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Vol 15, No 2 (2021)

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Opioid Epidemic: Diagnosed, Started on Treatment?

Ovechkin A.M.


In the March 2021 issue of the journal Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety, an article by K. Bykov et al. was published, which contains an analysis of the use of opioid and non-opioid analgesics in US clinics in the period 2007–2017. According to the authors, the frequency of use of drugs in this group does not tend to decrease, despite the previously announced “opioid epidemic” in the USA. In Russia, the problem of the emergence of opioid dependence due to the perioperative use of drugs of this group is of little relevance. The existing legal restrictions on the prescription of opioid analgesics minimize this risk. But these same limitations make the idea of opioid-free analgesia very attractive in our country.

Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. 2021;15(2):97-100
pages 97-100 views


Updated classification of the physical condition of patients of the american society of anesthesiologists

Koriachkin V.A., Levin Y.I., Zabolotskii D.V., Khinovker V.V., Safin R.P.


The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Classification of Physical Status is a widely used system for assessing the preoperative status of patients. The ASA class definitions have been amended several times since 1941, which caused some difficulties in using the classification. There are some difficulties in the assessments, especially between the I–II and II–III classes of the ASA. To overcome this problem, clinical samples presented in the latest edition of the classification play a significant role. In this article, we have presented an updated classification of the physical condition of patients on the ASA scale before anesthesia and surgery, which is sufficiently simple, reproducible, and can be successfully used not only in adults, but also in pediatric and obstetric anesthesiology.

Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. 2021;15(2):101-106
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The role of an anesthesiologist in the pandemic of uncontrolled use of psychotropic drugs

Svirskii D.A., Antipin E.E., Paromov K.V., Nedashkovsky E.V.


In the modern world, the number of people using various psychotropic drugs increases every day. The situation that has been described in recent decades associated with the use of narcotic and not criminalized substances in international literature as the OPIOID + (plus) crisis.

According to statistics, over the past few years, officially registered deaths from drug overdose have exceeded 70,000 in the United States. Leading causes were synthetic opioids, psychostimulants, and cocaine. This includes prescription opioids, opiates, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants. All aforementioned drugs are used in combination with each other, with alcohol or psychotropic marijuana.

For humans, biological, social, and psychological factors are cause the initiation of psychoactive drugs.

Due to the lack of a well-functioning medical care system for patients with chronic pain, doctors of all specialties treat pain.

In this article, we consider the current situation with mind-altering drugs and apply the role of the anesthesiologist in reducing the growth rate of the opioid pandemic.

Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. 2021;15(2):107-117
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Regional scalp block – the key analgesic element of anesthesia for supratentorial craniotomy

Kulikov A.S., Tere V.A., Imaev A.A., Lubnin A.Y.


This paper presents the key data on the effectiveness and safety of the regional anesthesia of the scalp, also known as the scalp block, for providing perioperative analgesia for supratentorial craniotomy. The authors describe the technique and its limitations and also trace the implementation of the scalp block method into the routine practice of the largest Russian neurosurgical clinic based on personal experience, results of the own research, and analysis of literature data.

Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. 2021;15(2):119-126
pages 119-126 views

Original study articles

Ultrasound navigation during retrobulbar blockade in children with retinoblastoma and enucleation of the eyeball

Belousova E.I., Matinyan N.V., Tsintsadze A.A., Martynov L.A., Kuznetsov D.A., Kovaleva E.A., Ushakova T.L., Polyakov V.G.


BACKGROUND: The retrobulbar block in children is used to enucleate analgesia in the intra- and postoperative period and prevent oculocardiac reflex (OCD), postoperative nausea, and vomiting. However, when the block is performed blindly, it results in serious complications.

AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a retrobulbar block performed under ultrasound guidance compared with a retrobulbar block performed blindly during enucleation of the eyeball in children with retinoblastoma.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed. The study included 40 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The patients were divided into two groups: 20 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided retrobulbar blockade (RBВ + ultrasound) and 20 patients who underwent blindly retrobulbar blockade (RBВ).

RESULTS: There was an insignificant decrease in intraoperative opioid requirements in the RBB + ultrasound group, where the average dose of fentanyl was 4±1.4 μg/kg, and in the RBB group, 4.7±0.8 μg/kg (p <0.05).

The time before the administration of the first dose of analgesic in the postoperative period was 4.7±0.8 h in the RBB group and 11.7±3.3 h in the RBB + ultrasound group (p <0.05). VAS and CHIPPS scores obtained 6 h after the end of surgery in the RBB + ultrasound and RBB groups were 1.8 (1.2; 2) and – 2.5 (3.8; 4.5) points (p <0.05), respectively.

CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant difference between the time of the retrobulbar blockade under ultrasound guidance and the retrobulbar regional block performed blindly. Retrobulbar blockade performed under ultrasound guidance provides a decrease in intraoperative opioid requirements, stable intraoperative hemodynamics, and longer postoperative analgesia.

Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. 2021;15(2):127-136
pages 127-136 views

Postoperative prolonged epidural analgesia using disposable elastomeric pumps in elderly patients after spinal neurosurgery

Solenkova A.V., Lubnin A.Y., Ivanova O.N., Konovalov N.A., Korolishin V.A., Brinyuk E.S.


BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is a significant problem in patients that causes various complications.

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prolonged epidural analgesia using

disposable elastomeric pumps in elderly patients undergoing spinal neurosurgery and its comparison with the traditional method of postoperative analgesia in 80 patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hemodynamic parameters were recorded and the efficiency of pain relief and nature of postoperative complications were assessed in comparable groups. The concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-2 were determined.

RESULTS: In the group with prolonged epidural analgesia with 0.2% ropivacaine solution, an adequate level of analgesia was achieved in 92% of the patients. The revealed changes in the blood serum levels of cytokines IL-6 and IL-2 may indicate a balanced response of the immune system in the group with prolonged epidural analgesia.

CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged epidural analgesia using disposable elastomeric pumps provides complete pain relief for patients and correction of individual links of the surgical stress response.

Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. 2021;15(2):137-146
pages 137-146 views

Effect of lidocaine on oxidative activity of peripheral blood phagocytes

Pozdnyakov O.B., Sitkin S.I., Emelyanova L.V.


BACKGROUND: Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes can cause damage to intrinsic tissues. The pathogenesis of sepsis is based on an excessive inflammatory response of the body. Several studies have reported the inhibitory effect of lidocaine on neutrophilic granulocytes.

AIM: This study aimed to analyze the effect of lidocaine on the oxidative activity of phagocytes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood from 16 healthy donors was used in this study. Leukocyte mass was extracted using spontaneous sedimentation. Half of the leukocyte samples were incubated in buffered physiological saline with lidocaine. The other half of the leukocyte samples were incubated in physiological saline without lidocaine. The generation of ROS was studied using two methods. Method 1 included a nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) test), which is based on the ability of ROS to reduce NBT to insoluble diformazan. Method 2 was based on the chemiluminescence reaction. A culture of S. Aureus was used to induce the production of ROS.

RESULTS: NBT test revealed a decrease in the oxidative activity of leukocytes in the presence of lidocaine by 18% (p <0.05). The study of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of leukocyte suspension in the presence of lidocaine revealed a significant 2-fold decrease in both spontaneous and stimulated respiratory activity of cells.

CONCLUSIONS: After incubation with lidocaine, phagocytes generated ROS to a significantly lower extent. However, their complete blockade was not recorded. This property of lidocaine may be used in clinical practice to treat an excessive inflammatory response in sepsis.

Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. 2021;15(2):147-152
pages 147-152 views

Comparative analysis of visual analog scales for assessing acute pain in women after radical mastectomy

Yaskevich V.V., Marochkov A.V.


BACKGROUND: Effective quantitative assessment of acute pain as an urgent problem in clinical medicine. One of the solutions to this problem is a color discrete scale (CDS).

AIM: To determine the efficacy of the clinical usage of color discrete scale compared with linear visual analog scale to assess acute pain in women after radical mastectomy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study includes a prospective, observational, and non-randomized clinical trial. A total of 110 females who underwent radical mastectomy (RM) were interviewed. We used a 100-point linear visual analog scale (lVAS) and CDS with monotonic (mCDS) and random (rCDS) color arrangement. Pain was assessed 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery.

RESULTS: Pain scores obtained 2 h after RM were 6 (0; 30), 12 (0; 24), 8 (0; 20) points according to IVAS, mCDS, and rCDS, respectively (p >0.05). Furthermore, the pain scores were gradually reduced on all three scales and had no statistically significant difference (p >0.05). In women who underwent paravertebral blockade (PVB), pain scores were significantly less at 2, 6, 12, and 48 h after surgery (p <0.05). Spearman’s correlation coefficient for lVAS and mCDS is 0.90, 0.86 for lVAS and rCDS, and 0.90 for mCDS and rCDS (all p <0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The CDS is an alternative, independent, and sufficient tool for quantifying pain. A strong correlation was found between the pain assessments according to CDS and lVAS. PVB significantly improves the quality of pain relief after RM.

Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. 2021;15(2):153-162
pages 153-162 views

Case reports

Two clinical cases of unintentionally prolonged sciatic nerve block

Tsvetkov V.G., Lakhin R.E., Stukalov A.V.


This study describes two clinical cases of unexpectedly long duration of motor block after anterior sciatic nerve block. In two patients who underwent total knee replacement, the motor block reversion in the area of sciatic nerve innervation did not occur at the expected time. Ultrasound examination revealed the deposition of a local anesthetic near the sciatic nerve. In these two clinical cases, unintentionally prolonged sciatic nerve blockade was caused by combined age-related factors of reduced tissue perfusion and the vasoconstrictor properties of levobupivacaine. Subsequently, the block was successfully resolved in 36–38 h without any neurological consequences.

Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. 2021;15(2):163-168
pages 163-168 views


Viktor Ivanovich Strashnov (on the occasion of his 90th birthday)


30 июня 2021 г. исполнилось 90 лет доктору медицинских наук, профессору Виктору Ивановичу Страшнову. Профессор В.И. Страшнов родился в 1931 г. в Винницкой области. В 1954 г. с отличием окончил I Ленинградский медицинский институт им. акад. И.П. Павлова, затем был оставлен в клинической ординатуре на кафедре госпитальной хирургии. По предложению акад. АМН СССР Ф.Г. Углова Виктор Иванович занялся изучением новой для того времени специальности – анестезиологии, которой впоследствии посвятил всю свою жизнь. С 1956 по 1957 г. прошёл стажировку по анестезиологии и реаниматологии в НИИ сердечно-сосудистой хирургии им. А.Н. Бакулева, в 1960–1961 гг. обучался на международных курсах Всемирной организации здравоохранения по анестезиологии в Дании, где получил диплом анестезиолога Копенгагенского университета. В период с 1961 по 1964 г. Виктор Иванович заведовал отделением анестезиологии и реаниматологии на кафедре госпитальной хирургии I Ленинградского медицинского института им. акад. И.П. Павлова, с 1964 г. он избирается по конкурсу на должность ассистента этой же кафедры.

Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. 2021;15(2):169-170
pages 169-170 views

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