In memory of academician A.A. Vishnevsky – the chief surgeon of the Ministry of defense of the USSR (for the 45th anniversary of his death)

Cover Page

Cite item

Full Text

Open Access Open Access
Restricted Access Access granted
Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


The life and work of academician Alexander Alexandrovich Vishnevsky are presented. During the Great Patriotic War, Alexander Alexandrovich served as an army surgeon and chief surgeon for a number of fronts. He became the director of the A.V. Vishnevsky of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences in 1948 and later served as the chief surgeon of the USSR Ministry of Defense starting in 1956. As a student and the closest associate of his father A.V. Vishnevsky, Alexander Alexandrovich participated in the creation of a domestic surgical school and then became its leader after his father’s death. Analysis of the early works of Alexander Alexandrovich reveals his devotion to the anatomical substantiation of local anesthesia based on the method of “creeping infiltrate.” The well-known monograph “Novocaine blockade and oil-balsamic antiseptics as a special type of pathogenetic therapy” (1952), written by Alexander Alexandrovich and his father, is the result of many years of research on the role of nervous trophism in the pathogenesis of a number of surgical diseases. Alexander Alexandrovich also found that in the advanced stages of medical evacuation, surgical interventions on the wounded can be performed under local anesthesia by using the creeping infiltrate method. In peacetime, A.A. Vishnevsky continued to investigate the issues related to anesthesia and nervous trophism and collaborated with his colleagues to address a number of other pressing problems, including the surgery of the heart and blood vessels, mechanisms for compensating for impaired functions of organs and systems, the use of cybernetics and electronics in surgery, burn injuries, and the use of polymers in surgery. Moreover, A.A. Vishnevsky was the first surgeon in Russia to perform a successful open-heart surgery under the conditions of artificial circulation (1957). He was awarded the highest René Leriche International Prize for his work on local anesthesia during heart surgery (1955).

Full Text

Restricted Access

About the authors

Temury S. Morgoshiia

Saint-Petersburg clinical hospital of RAS; Saint Patersburg State Pediatric Medical University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3838-177X

PhD, associate Professor

Russian Federation, 72, Toreza av., Saint Petersburg, 194017; Saint Petersburg

Nikolai A. Syroezhin

Research Clinical Institute of Pediatrics named after academician Yu.E. Veltishev

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2177-3745


Russian Federation, 1, Ostrovityanova st., Moscow, 117997

Alexander V. Inkin

Saint Patersburg State Pediatric Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3401-9386


Russian Federation, 2, Litovskaya st., Saint Petersburg, 194100


  1. Vishnevskii AA. Alexander Alexandrovich Vishnevsky (On the 60th anniversary of his birth) (editorial) // Sovetskaya meditsina. 1966;5:156–157. (In Russ).
  2. Vishnevskii AA. Leprosy, clinical experience in studying its pathogenesis [dissertation]. Moscow; 1936. (In Russ).
  3. Popovskii AD. The laws of life. Moscow: Sovetskiy pisatel’; 1963. (In Russ).
  4. Vishnevskii AA. The technique of novocaine block of the sympathetic nervous system of the lumbar region. Arkhiv biologicheskikh nauk. 1933;34(4):519–521. (In Russ).
  5. Vishnevskii AA., Shrayber MI. Military field surgery. 3rd edition. Moscow: Meditsina; 1975. (In Russ).
  6. Vishnevskii AA. Selected works on surgery and relates topics. Moscow: Meditsina; 1970. (In Russ).
  7. Vishnevskii AA, Kharnas SSh. Extracorporeal circulation and hypothermia in open heart surgery. Moscow: Meditsina; 1968. (In Russ).
  8. Vishnevskii AA. The surgeon’s diary. The Great Patriotic War 1941–1945. Moscow: Meditsina; 1967. (In Russ).
  9. Morgoshiia TSh. Domestic anesthesiology in the first half of the xx century: scientific priorities. Regional anesthesia and acute pain management. 2018;12(3):197–203. (In Russ).

Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Fig. 1. Professor A.A. Vishnevsky

Download (240KB)
2. Fig. 2. The building of the Kazan University named after V.I. Ulyanov-Lenin

Download (210KB)
3. Fig. 3. A.A. Vishnevsky at the frontline (right in the photo)

Download (167KB)
4. Fig. 4. A.A. Vishnevsky in the center with his students and colleagues

Download (244KB)
5. Fig. 5. A.A. Vishnevsky and G.K. Zhukov on a walk

Download (251KB)

Copyright (c) 2021 Eco-Vector

СМИ зарегистрировано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).
Регистрационный номер и дата принятия решения о регистрации СМИ: серия ПИ ФС 77 - 55827 от 30.10.2013 г
СМИ зарегистрировано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).
Регистрационный номер и дата принятия решения о регистрации СМИ: серия ЭЛ № ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80651 от 15.03.2021 г

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies